This is a timeline of Russian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Russia and its predecessor states. The jokes of course appeared long after the war ended. The newly born kingdom conquered the tribes of Krivichi, Drevlyane, the Severians, and Radimichi and formed the Kievan Rus. The campaign was described as lacking zest as the poll leader didn’t take part in the TV debates. So October 25 became November 7. When telling a Brezhnev joke, his lines are said slowly and unintelligibly: Brezhnev comes to address a big Communist party meeting and says: “Dear comrade imperialists.” Everyone sits up trying to understand what he said. The end of the century set the stage for the reign of Prince Oleg, famous for the unification of the Novgorod and Kiev regencies, and later the transfer of the capital from Novgorod to Kiev. Hip fashion designers are exploiting the trend, while Moscow’s gilded youth sports t-shirts and tracksuits emblazoned with “CCCP” (the Russian for “USSR”), hammers and sickles, and red stars. Bouts of nostalgia are common, with many longing for the times when the Soviet Union was at the peak of its superpower status. This is where things get tricky. Early Moscow. Battles raged for every street, house, basement and staircase. Back in those ancient times Russia it seems nearly became a Muslim country. Legend has it that a local peasant, Ivan Susanin, promised to guide them to the hide-out. Exhausted by the turmoil, in 1613 the nobles chose Mikhail Romanov, one of the closest surviving relatives of the royal family, as Tsar. This period claims the first written evidence about the "Rus" and "Rusah". Hundreds of young recruits were preparing to defend the capital. One of them – the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party – wanted a revolution. Coming to power in a coup d’état against her husband in 1762, Catherine went on to become one the most powerful European monarchs, known as a great patron of the arts and literature. Under the first few generations of Romanovs, when Western Europe went through a political and economic boom, Russia lagged behind… until Peter the Great turned the page. Starting from 1899, Russia tightened its grip on the Grand Duchy of Finland. But Gorbachev was determined to shake up the moth-eaten bureaucracy and mouldy economy. Meanwhile, the USSR was setting scientific and technological records. In October 2006 the murder of Anna Politkovskaya – the award-winning journalist and harsh critic of the Kremlin, drew widespread condemnation. Critics have accused Putin of trading in freedom for security as he tightened the grip on the media and muted the opposition. From those ancient times comes a popular proverb “Your tongue will take you to Kiev”. Joseph Stalin emerged victorious and went on to rule the Soviet Union for a quarter of a century, becoming one of the most powerful and murderous dictators in history. In noble solidarity, many of their wives followed them into the frozen wilderness, giving rise to the expression “Decembrist wife”. Trotsky was dismissed as commissar of war in 1925 and banished from the Soviet U… Three months later, Yeltsin’s protégé won the presidential ballot. As one of the founding states of the Soviet Union, Ukraine had been an important contributor to the Soviet Union's economy between 1920–1991. The crushing defeat at Stalingrad was unmatched in scale, spurring the Soviet drive towards victory… In May 1945 Berlin finally fell. Hit by military losses and severe food shortages, Russia’s economy collapsed. Exhausted people collapsed and died. Modern historians still argue about the truth behind the story, but the tale is generally considered largely exaggerated. Areas captured by the Wehrmacht troops by day, were re-taken by the Soviet army at night. Officially, the cause of death was a cerebral haemorrhage, but it was later suggested that Stalin was assassinated. By Serguei Shcheglov on April 25 2017 in Society. The original name was seen as too German; Petrograd was chosen as a more Russian-sounding and patriotic one. Boris Yeltsin guided Russia through a time of great change and challenge. Hand-picked by Gorbachev to shake up the corrupt Moscow party hierarchy, Yeltsin proved himself an eager reformer. It’s had an outsize role in world history for hundreds of years, though many people in America seem to think it sprang, fully formed, as the Communist USSR in the early 20th centuries. Leon Trotsky, one of his key opponents, who saw himself as Lenin’s heir apparent, was thrown out of the Communist Party and exiled. The key players were the Red Army organised by the Bolsheviks and the White movement made up of Russia’s political and military forces that opposed them. Stalin’s repressions created a vast system of labour camps managed by a government agency known by its acronym Gulag. A Brief History of Argentina. The final stage of the unification process took about 50 years during the reign of Ivan III (1462-1505), and first years of the reign of his successor Vasily III (1505-1533). On September 7, with the French army only 100 km from the city, the two armies met at Borodino Field. The 2008 poll had the lowest number of candidates for a presidential election in modern Russian history. Salaries weren’t paid and many pensioners were reduced to begging after their lifelong savings were wiped out. Legend has it that in 999 a Kiev resident called Nikita Shchemyaka got lost in the far-away steppes and was caught by a militant nomadic tribe. The Julian calendar, formerly used in Russia, was 13 days behind. The empire is traditionally seen as the beginning of Russia and the ancestor of Belarus and Ukraine. Towards the end of the century the ancient state of the Slavs faced with the north expansion of the Khazar Khanate and the imposition of tribute on the Slavic tribes of Polyants, Severian, Vyatichi, and Radimichi. Lenin decided that a partial return to a market economy would help the country rebound. Yeltsin called in the tanks. The story goes that the Germans decided to send a super-sniper of their own to kill him. A recent Russian video game even featured Chapaev saving the Galaxy from aliens. The troops left Red Square to head straight to the frontline. A Brief History of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia, 1922-1972 The Revolution of 1917, having destroyed the centuries-old Russian state, drew along with it onerous consequences for the Russian Orthodox Church. Established on March 13, 1954, a year after Stalin’s death, the State Security Committee known for its Russian abbreviation KGB («КГБ»), became the USSR’s most outstanding governmental agency and an internationally-known brand name. In the USSR the end of the war was considered to be May 9, 1945, when the German surrender took effect. The reforms soon became widely resented. Brezhnev tries again: “Dear comrade imperialists.”. But the war on vodka largely failed. Because of the incident, the weapon is sometimes referred to as “Kuzka’s mother”. Gorbachev was reinstated but support had swung over to Yeltsin. Trotsky spent his last years in Mexico before being assassinated by a Soviet agent on Stalin’s orders. During his reign, Russia finally gained its long-coveted access to the Baltic Sea, defeating the Swedes. The USSR’s losses are now estimated at about 26.6 million, accounting for half of all WW2 casualties. Stalin’s 1935 phrase “Life’s become better. Under his “new thinking”, the arms race with the US took a U-turn. The family’s only claim to fame came from Putin’s paternal grandfather who cooked for Lenin and Stalin. The outbreak of the Second World War found the Soviet Union unprepared for the conflict ahead. To impress her and her party, Potemkin had elaborate fake settlements constructed along the desolated banks of the Dnieper River, with flocks of sheep driven every night to the next stop along the route. Unlike the countries conquered by the Mongols in Central Asia, the Caspian and the Northern Black Sea coast, which had favorable natural conditions for extensive nomadic herding and became the territory of the Mongolian state, Russia had generally maintained its own independent statehood throughout the period. Support for the already unpopular government dwindled. See also the list of leaders of Russia. In December 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was born. During the battles in and around the city, he picked off more than 200 German soldiers. In December 2007, the Putin-backed United Russia Party won the parliamentary election. A major headache for translators, the mysterious mother of the bizarre Kuzka is actually a famous Russian idiom. He toiled in construction and worked through the party ranks, but it wasn’t until Gorbachev’s rise to power that he’s got his career break. During the Russian rule, Finland became a special region developed by order of the Emperor. Women’s rights were greatly increased. To read about the background to these events, see History of Russia. And if you find out that “walking like a pig” has nothing to do with the grunting animals you’ve got another epic battle to blame – the Battle of the Ice in 1242. Donskoy became a popular hero and the words “the slaughter of Mamai” now mean a carnage or terrible defeat. Bureaucracy, threatened by Khrushchev’s reforms, flourished. Initially, the new nation only had four members: the Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian and Transcaucasian Soviet republics. In a speech justifying the move, Brezhnev spelled out Moscow’s right to intervene in the affairs of other socialist states. Russia gained Estonia and land around the Gulf of Finland. After waiting in vain for Alexander’s offer of talks, Napoleon decided to leave. His New Economic Policy or NEP, introduced in 1921, brought a period of relative prosperity and access to Western culture. Neither side gained a decisive victory. The first mentioning of some community in the territory of what we now refer to as Russia came to be in the Fourth Century AD with the formation of the first tribal union of Eastern Slavs (Volhynians and Buzhans). These settlements became centres of authority for the surrounding Slavs. His “perestroika” (“restructuring”) allowed private business ownership for the first time in decades, while “glasnost” (“openness”) brought the country’s problems out into the open. His funeral service at the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow was the first for a head of state to be sanctioned by the Church for more than a hundred years. The territory occupied by Mongolian tribes, stretched from lake Baikal, the upper reaches of Yenisei River and Irtysh River in the north down to the southern regions of the Gobi Desert. A chronology of key events in the history of Russia, from the 1200s to the present. St. Basil’s Cathedral on Red Square was built by his order. A bitter civil war broke out. Another Stalingrad legend was sniper Vasily Zaitsev. The man who ruled the USSR for nearly 30 years died on March 5, 1953. Hoping to exploit the Russians’ weakness after the Tatar invasion, the Teutonic Knights attacked the city of Novgorod. His fatal Russian campaign began in June 1812. He became the fourth and last holder of the title in pre-revolutionary Russia, until Josef Stalin was proclaimed Generalissimo of the Soviet Union. Brief History of Russia. Brief History of Spain. Many didn’t hide their tears. His phrase “We will follow a different path” was widely popularized in the Soviet Union. This was Kievan Rus – a powerful East Slavic state dominated by the city of Kiev. Severe shortages of basic food supplies led to the reintroduction of the war-time system of rationing. One of the most brutal standoffs in human history, it had begun the previous year, in the summer of 1942. A Brief History of Russia Michael Kort No preview available - 2008. There followed a whole string of firsts: Yuri Gagarin became the first man in space on April 12, 1961; Valentina Tereshkova – the first woman in space two years later; soon after Alexey Leonov completed the first spacewalk. The famous photo of two Soviet soldiers unfurling a red flag over the Reichstag became an iconic image of World War II. Yet, despite the atrocities and claims of human rights abuse in Chechnya, many Russians praised Putin for drawing the line in the south. The Russian capital’s name became the first victim – St. Petersburg was renamed Petrograd. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2021 worldatlas.com, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Types Of Crimes By Number Of Offenses In The US, The 10 Biggest Shopping Malls In The World. But Vladimir finally decided against it because he thought his people would be unhappy under a religion that prohibits wine. By Arthur Evans – Today, Vladimir Putin is regarded by many, even by his opponents, to be one of the grandmasters in global politics. A Brief History of Champagne And Its Traditions In Russia Submitted by wayin on Sun, 10/23/2016 - 19:04 Champagne was an invention of a very attentive and diligent monk Dom Perignon. They retreated, devastating the land behind them. Estimates vary from a low of three million to a high of 60 million. Despite enormous challenges, there was a widespread feeling of optimism and opportunity. Using different aliases in his writings, he finally settled on Lenin in 1901. The cathedral is a collection of nine chapels put on a single foundation. Still, during Putin’s eight years in power, his popularity ratings have routinely stayed at around 70 per cent. In September 1942, a Soviet platoon led by Yakov Pavlov turned an apartment block in the city centre into an impenetrable fortress. He set up the Gorbachev Foundation, an independent think-tank, as well as an environmental organization – Green Cross International. At home, living standards have been boosted and ambitious social programmes set up. But many argue stability and power have come at a cost. Yeltsin’s Russia saw a huge religious revival and media boom. The Russian Empire did not start as large and powerful as it is today. Then, in August 1999, Putin was named prime minister, Yeltsin’s fifth in 17 months. The capital never surrendered and for the first time the Germans were thrown back. Shaped in the 9th century it went on to flourish for the next 300 years. Nikita’s tales of Kiev’s wealth and splendor impressed the tribe’s chief so much, he hooked Nikita by the tongue to his horse’s tail and went to wage war against Kiev. The central and tallest one commemorates the invasion of Kazan while the rest celebrate other key victories in the Tatar campaign. Speaking of the “advancing pig”, the medieval Russian chronicles referred to the marching Teutonic knights. Nicholas and his family were imprisoned and later executed on the night of July 16-17, 1918. The reason behind the rapid and victorious advance of Genghis Khan's troops was the fragmentation of Russia by the principalities, competing with each other. FREE Shipping Get free shipping Free 5-8 day shipping within the U.S. when you order $25.00 of eligible items sold or fulfilled by Amazon. In another celebrated incident, he failed to emerge from his plane at Shannon Airport for talks with Ireland’s Prime Minister. Putin has restored stability – something the country’s hardly seen for the past century – and a sense of pride among people tired of crises. Life’s become more cheerful”was a popular slogan of the time and is now a sarcastic way of lamenting life’s tough circumstances. In March 1990 Gorbachev became the President of the Soviet Union, the first and only man to hold the rank. Stalin’s funeral ended in tragedy. The Polish troops set out to kill the newly-chosen Tsar who was hiding in a remote village. Russia went on to reinvent itself as an energy-superpower, a pushy global player and a keen referee in the Middle East. Given strict limitations on the movement of foreigners in the USSR, seeing less perfect examples was out of the question. Out of office, Mikhail Gorbachev remained driven by work. Boris Yeltsin may have left a controversial legacy, but he has unquestionably written his name into Russia’s history forever. His failing health was a taboo subject for the Soviet press but was obvious at his public appearances. It enjoyed greater political and civic freedoms than it had ever known and carved itself a place among the world’s most industrialised democracies, turning G7 into G8. The two men knew each other from Putin’s days at university, where Sobchak had lectured. Moscow hit back, establishing an Eastern counterpart, dubbed the Warsaw Pact. A ball of verbal energy and charisma, Gorbachev wanted radical change. The siege was commemorated by the Green Belt of Glory, a unique complex of memorials along the historic frontline. The Napoleonic wars inspired a Russian literary masterpiece – Leo Tolstoy’s “War and Peace”. On December 20, 1917 – to protect the newly-born government from political opponents – the Bolsheviks created a secret police. Yeltsin’s opponents barricaded themselves in the parliament building – now home of Russia’s government – and tried to take control of the television station. Shortly before Brezhnev’s death, Moscow dazzled the world with arguably the biggest extravaganza of Soviet times: the 1980 Summer Olympics. After decades of Communism, when Russia and the USSR were often seen as one and the same, the 1990s were an attempt to forge a new identity. Four years later he suffered a stroke from which he never fully recovered. Abroad, he decided that the USSR would no longer meddle in the affairs of East European Soviet satellite states. But he started out as a reformer, reorganizing the military, proclaiming a new legal code and curbing the influence of the clergy. The Europe has heard the the name of Russian Ballet, yet the state capital was moved from Moscow's baroque mansions to the grandeur of the more Westernized Saint Petersburg's classicism. On the last day of the year he took over as acting President. Boris Yeltsin died of heart failure on April 23, 2007, aged 76. At the beginning of the Eighth Century the resettlement of Slavonic tribes began in the upper basins of the Dnieper, Western Dvina, and Upper Volga Rivers. Ambitious liberal reforms were later attempted by Tsar Alexander II. But when the Russians speak of “cutting a window through to Europe” they refer to Peter’s reforms – and mean a breakthrough or progress. In the 18th century Russian Tea Cakes began appearing in Russia where they were used as a delicious confection that was used during tea-sharing ceremonies. The KGB’s history ended on April 3, 1995 when President Boris Yeltsin replaced it with the FSB («ФСБ») – the Federal Security Service. Putin’s Grand Strategy: A Brief History of Russia’s Restoration By Arthur Evans. Brief History Of Russia Several people, including Asian Huns, Turkish Avars, and Asian Huns, invaded Russia over many centuries. The French army soon faced an unusually cold and early winter. Some years later, the Rus conquered the city of Kiev and started the kingdom of the Kievan Rus. The crowds were so dense and chaotic that hundreds either suffocated or were trampled to death. Brezhnev was succeeded first by KGB’s head Yuri Andropov, and then by Konstantin Chernenko – neither of them lived long enough to implement significant changes. After his return, Peter embarked on an ambitious programme to transform Russia into a European state. In 1995 President Boris Yeltsin established December 20 as the day of the Security Service. The followers of the communist ideas of Karl Marx and the ideology of the Russian revolution leader Vladimir Lenin took over. He also wrote poetry and was a great womaniser. It’s argued that the picture didn’t capture the actual moment of Soviet glory but was staged a day or two after the storming of the building, and even retouched by the Soviet propaganda machine. Most parts of the Russian continent were inhabited by … One of Moscow’s most famous landmarks is another of Ivan’s legacy. The city’s civilian population of almost three million refused to surrender, even though they were completely surrounded. He’s gone down in history as the Liberator-Tsar, freeing its 20 million serfs in 1861 – arguably the single most important event in 19th century Russian history. But when the Berlin Wall came down in 1989, his assignment also ended. Putin’s big break came with the help of Anatoly Sobchak, Leningrad’s liberal mayor. Towards the end of the century the ancient state of the Slavs faced with the north expansion of the Khazar Khanate and the imposition of tribute on the Slavic tribes of Polyants, Severian, Vyatichi, and Radimichi. Against the advice of his generals, with the Germans pushing on, Stalin held a military parade in Red Square on November 7 to mark the anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution. From those times comes the word “Stakhanovit” («стахановец», pronounced “stakhanovets”) – now a mocking term for overachievers on the job. “The pig” was the Russian way of describing the wedge-shaped formation of the German army, often used in Europe in the 13-15th centuries. One building that the Germans failed to take was the so-called “Pavlov’s House”. Finland did not take part in World War I, but nationalism also had an inf… The Emperor of Russia, Alexander I gave Finland the status of a Grand Duchy. THE HISTORY OF RUSSIA IN 10 MINUTES. Russia didn’t hand over the key suspect, Andrei Lugovoy, saying the constitution doesn’t allow a citizen to be extradited, thus sparking a bitter diplomatic row with London. The official version had it that the local council proposed a fast execution, fearing they would be freed by the approaching White forces. After the socialist revolution of 1917 in Russia, Moscow became the capital once again, and the state system of the large Russian country had changed completely. Seizing Stalingrad – “Stalin’s City” – would deal a disastrous blow to Soviet morale, something Stalin couldn’t afford. After the Soviet Union ceased to exist in 1992, a phase of self-formation occurred in republics of the former Soviet Union and the largest one, the Russian Federation, which was the basis of both the Russian Empire and later the Soviet Union, have embarked upon the construction of a market economy. In 1990 Yeltsin quit the Communist Party. The blockade took the lives of at least 670,000 people, although some estimates suggest that as many as 1.5 million people died. But Alexander’s extraordinary battle to push his country forward was too much for some and not enough for others. Yeltsin famously grabbed a conductor’s baton in Berlin and tried to sing along with the orchestra. After his own death, a statement was released accusing the Russian President of orchestrating his murder. Recent history of Russian media shows how the media system was preconditioned by the country's political development. He’d often travel in disguise, even working as a ship’s carpenter in Holland. But when he first burst onto Russia’s political scene, for many, Putin was very much a mystery. In St. Petersburg, troops fired on a peaceful demonstration by workers, killing and wounding hundreds and sparking the Russian Revolution of 1905. Thousands of political prisoners were released. Brief History of Japan. In 1547 Ivan IV (the Terrible), who was also Grand Duke of Moscow, crowned himself the first Tsar. Khrushchev was notorious for his eccentric outbursts. The Russian language has become a source of cultural history, being at that time very similar to other Slavic languages. For example, Ivan the Terrible/Great was one of the first well-known and beloved tsars of Russia because he was the first to conquer the Mongolians in 1500. The formation of Russian land has began around Moscow, the city which played a role of political supremacy in region. But don’t panic if you hear the saying – you won’t share the unfortunate Nikita’s lot. 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