Large numbers of Bengalis also migrated from Bangladesh to Karachi during periods of economic growth in the 1980s and 1990s. [169], Political parties in the province have suggested the city's population has been underestimated in a deliberate attempt to undermine the political power of the city and province. New rich and upper-middleclass housing is located adjacent to the Civil Lines. Karachi is one of the world’s fastest growing megacities. [109] Zia's Islamization policies lead the Westernized upper-middle classes of Karachi to largely withdraw from the public sphere, and instead form their own social venues that became inaccessible to the poor. In 2016, the number of murders in Karachi had dropped to 471, which had dropped further to 381 in 2017. [74] The founders of the new fortified settlement were Sindhi Baniyas,[73] and are said to arrived from the nearby town of Kharak Bandar after the harbour there silted in 1728 after heavy rains. As most of Pakistan's large multinational corporations are based in Karachi, income taxes are paid in the city even though income may be generated from other parts of the country. 1 172 km 2. Karachi is a centre of research in biomedicine with at least 30 public hospitals, 80 registered private hospitals and 12 recognized medical colleges,[272] including the Indus Hospital, Lady Dufferin Hospital, Karachi Institute of Heart Diseases,[273] National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases,[274] Civil Hospital,[275] Combined Military Hospital,[276] PNS Rahat,[277] PNS Shifa,[278] Aga Khan University Hospital, Liaquat National Hospital, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre,[279] Holy Family Hospital[280] and Ziauddin Hospital. 90% of Orangi streets are now connected to a sewer system built by local residents under the Orangi Pilot Project. Municipal water supplies are managed by the Karachi Water and Sewerage Board (KW&SB), which supplies 640 million gallons daily (MGD) to the city (excluding the city's steel mills and Port Qasim), of which 440 MGD are filtered/treated. [26][27] The settlement drastically increased in importance with the arrival of British East India Company in the mid 19th century. [22], Karachi is home to a wide array of non-Urdu speaking Muslim peoples from what is now the Republic of India. The Karachi City Station and Karachi Cantonment Railway Station are the city's two major railway stations. Many streets in central Karachi still retain Hindu names, especially in Mithadar, Aram Bagh (formerly Ram Bagh), and Saddar. Population Density Distribution To investigate the pattern of population density gradient, the Model of Clark (1951) was found fit to explain population density distribution in Karachi City. Karachi est la plus grande ville du Pakistan et la capitale économique et financière du pays. The model states that population density exponentially declines with increasing distance from the city centre. While Karachi is one of the world’s largest Muslim cities, there are also numerous other religious groups that call the city home, including Protestant Christianity, Goan Catholics, Hindus, and Zoroastrians. The city's development was largely confined to the area north of the Chinna Creek prior to independence, although the seaside area of Clifton was also developed as a posh locale under the British, and its large bungalows and estates remain some of the city's most desirable properties. Karachi acquired its first neo-Gothic or Indo-Gothic buildings when Frere Hall, Empress Market and St. Patrick's Cathedral were completed. [89], Municipal Administration of Karachi is also run by the Karachi Metropolitan Corporation (KMC), which is responsible for the development and maintenance of main arteries, bridges, drains, several hospitals, beaches, solid waste management, as well as some parks, and the city's firefighting services. [321], Architecturally distinctive, even eccentric, buildings have sprung up throughout Karachi. The procedure involved the careful removal of each piece of timber and stone, stacked temporarily, loaded on the trucks for transportation to the Clifton site, unloaded and re-arranged according to a given layout, stone by stone, piece by piece, and completed within three months. [252] Each tier focused on elected councils with some common members to provide "vertical linkage" within the federation.[253]. Naimatullah Khan was the first Nazim of Karachi during the Union Council period, while Shafiq-Ur-Rehman Paracha was the first district co-ordination officer of Karachi. By the middle of 2016, Karachi's rank had dropped to 31 following the launch of anti-crime operations. Of the total urban population of the province, 68% is concentrated in three major cities – Karachi, Hyderabad and Sukkur. [212][213][214] Sunnis primarily follow the Hanafi school of jurisprudence, with Sufism influencing religious practices by encouraging reverence for Sufi saints such as Abdullah Shah Ghazi and Mewa Shah. [121] [153], As home to Pakistan's largest ports and a large portion of its manufacturing base, Karachi contributes a large share of Pakistan's collected tax revenue. [93] Recorded crimes sharply decreased following a controversial crackdown operation against criminals, the MQM party, and Islamist militants initiated in 2013 by the Pakistan Rangers. [267] Parts of the city's drainage system overflow on average 2–7 times per month, flooding some city streets. 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