(2004)) stated that low values of stream frequency Sf indicate presence of a permeable subsurface material and low relief. Extraction of Kanhar River basin boundary through ASTER data. GIS is a powerful tool for the analysis rel ating to watershed morphometric parameters. Morphometric analysis is carried out using Arc GIS (9.2) software, an advanced tool for measuring the drainage basin, the earth surface dimensions of landform and shape with in the short time. In: Chow VT (ed) Handbook of applied hydrology. Detailed morphometric study of all sub-watersheds shows dendritic to sub-dendritic drainage patterns, which thus indicate homogenous lithology and variations of values of Rb among the sub-watersheds attributed to difference in topography and geometric development. Stream frequency (Sf) is the total number of stream segments of all orders per unit area (Horton 1932). Therefore, these slopes have a higher moisture content and lower evaporation rate although and some parts are falling towards west facing which have a lower moisture content and have a high evaporation rate. Elongation ratio (Re) is defined as the ratio of diameter of a circle having the same area as of the basin and maximum basin length (Schumm 1956). In general, the area is hilly with steep slope. The analysis of the drainage does not appear to be complete if it lacks the systematic approach towards the development of drainage basin in the area. In this study, GIS and image processing techniques have been adopted for the Drainage lines of an area not only explain the existing three-dimensional geometry of the region but also help to narrate its evolutional process (Singh 1980). Reddy et al. and 55E/8 on the scale of 1:50,000 by the use of GIS software (Fig. Smaller the value of form factor, more elongated will be the basin. This is the most eroded area formed by the river erosion. The region is characterized by dominance of moderate absolute relief and drainage frequency, low relative relief and dissection index, moderately fine drainage density and moderate slope. The total geographical area of the basin is 5,654 km2. The drainage density of the Kanhar basin is 1.72 km/km2, which indicates that basin area has a highly resistant permeable subsurface material with intermediate drainage and low to moderate relief. Keywords: Morphometric, Elongation ratio, Form fa ctor, Shape factor, Circularity ratio 1. Morphometric parameters viz; stream order, stream length, bifurcation ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, form factor, circulatory ratio, etc., are calculated. 1:50000 scale with the help of Arc-GIS-10. Various hydrological phenomena can be correlated with the physiographic characteristics of an drainage basin such as size, shape, slope of the drainage area, drainage density, size and length of the contributories, etc. 6d; Table 3). Some of these summits show long continued erosion and which form platforms within the hillocks. According to this law, the number of streams counted for each order is plotted on logarithmic scale on the y axis against order on arithmetic scale on the x axis. Erosion risk parameters can be measured and calculated using DEM’s and Arc GIS software. 2004; Chopra et al. It is a significant ratio that indicates the dendritic stage of a watershed. Int J Geomat Geosci 2(2):403–414, Shreve RW (1969) Stream lengths and basin areas in topologically random channel networks. Limestone, shales and conglomerates are found mixed with sedimentary rocks are met in the area. Journal of Emerging Technology in Mechanical Science and Engineering, 4(2), 129-142, (2013a). A morphometric analysis of Shanur basin has been carried out using geoprocessing techniques in GIS. The Kanhar River (23°12′N to 24°272′N and 83°2′E to 84°1′E) is an important tributary of the River Son. Rf value of the Kanhar basin is 0.18 (Table 2). The study area is located on the northern fringe of peninsular shield of India. Combination of the remote sensing satellite data and hydrological and spatial analysis in GIS environment is made easy to iden-tify and discriminate the drainage area (Pirasteh et al. 2004). 2004). It flows through the Indian states of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh (Fig. Rh for Kanhar basin is calculated, i.e., 0.092. Geol Geosci 2(4):1–10, Gottschalk LC (1964) Reservoir sedimentation in handbook of applied hydrology. 2005). The aspect map of Kanhar basin is shown in Fig. The middle Kanhar basin lies in the central part of the study basin covering an area of about 3,268.44 km2 or 52.34 %. Hence, it is noticed that there is a decrease in stream frequency as the stream order increases and vice versa. During calculation it is identified that the number of streams gradually decreases as the stream order increases; the variation in stream order and size of tributary basins is largely depends on physiographical, geomorphological and geological condition of the region. This can have major effects on the distribution of vegetation in the Kanhar watershed area. The major rainfall recorded at Dudhi ranging 80–90 % occurs mainly in the summer monsoon during June to September, which is very uneven. Kanhar River could be designated as a seventh-order stream (Fig. It is a dimensionless property and shows the degree of integration prevailing between streams of various orders in a drainage basin. The values of stream frequency indicate that all the sub-watershed show positive correlation with increasing stream segments with respect to increasing drainage density. Vimal Prakashan, Varanasi, Singh S (1992) Quantitative geomorphology of the drainage basin. Natl Geogr J India 43(1):31–43, Smith KG (1950) Standards for grading texture of erosional topography. (Strahler 1964). The stream length is a measure of the hydrological characteristics of the bedrock and the drainage extent. Son River plays an important role in increasing the catchment area of Ganga River. Geol Soc Am Bull 101:1373–1388, Mesa LM (2006) Morphometric analysis of a subtropical Andean basin (Tucuman, Argentina). 2011). Geol Soc Am Bull 106:571–581, Dar RA, Chandra R, Romshoo SA (2013) Morphotectonic and lithostratigraphic analysis of intermontane Karewa basin of Kashmir Himalayas, India. As per Horton’s law (1945) of stream numbers, “the number of streams of different orders in a given drainage basin tends closely to approximate as inverse geometric series of which the first term is unity and the ratio is the bifurcation ratio”. Digitization of the drainage basin was carried out for morphometric analysis in GIS environment using Arc GIS-10 software. The direction of the basin is in NE to SW. Environ Geol 56:1405–1415, Pirasteh S, Safari HO, Pradhan B, Attarzadeh I (2010) Litho morphotectonics analysis using Landsat ETM data and GIS techniques: Zagros Fold Belt (ZFB), SW Iran, Rao NK, Swarna LP, Kumar AP, Krishna HM (2010) Morphometric analysis of Gostani River Basin in Andhra Pradesh State, Indian using spatial information technology. They introduce the major elements needed to assess water resources and their hydrologic regime, thus it is recommended to apply similar studies in anywhere in India. Praveen Kumar Rai. Slope grid is identified as “the maximum rate of change in value from each cell to its neighbors” (Burrough 1986). 2005; Mesa 2006). Rc value of Kanhar basin is 0.15 (Table 2). In the study area, Rc value of different sub-watershed of Kanhar basin is ranging from 0.246 to 0.411 (Table 10; Fig. Horton (1932) stated form factor as the ratio of the area of the basin and square of the basin length. Lab 4: Drainage Basin Morphometry Objectives: To better appreciate the usefulness of topographic maps as tools for investigating drainage basins and to master several morphometric variables used to characterize and analyze drainage basins. The Upper Kanhar basin lies in the southern part of basin covering an area of about 1,499.57 km2 (24.01 %). Geographical information system (GIS) has emerged as an efficient tool in delineation of drainage pattern and ground water potential and its planning. Upper Pleistocene to Recent 3. Drainage provides a basic to understand initial gradient, variation in rock resistance, structural control, geological and geomorphologic history of the drainage basin or watershed. In general, the area is flat and hilly towards western part of middle Kanhar basin and there are waterfalls of up to 30 m. The highest elevation of the basin (1,225 m Gaurlata) also lies in this region. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 22(4):251–261, Obi Reddy GE, Maji AK, Gajbhiye KS (2002) GIS for morphometric analysis of drainage basins. The climate of the watershed is characterized by hot summer and well-distributed rainfall during the monsoon season. Higher density (3.23) is identified for Thema River sub-watershed whereas low drainage density (1.18) is calculated for Suria River sub-watershed (Table 9). Higher slope is identified in southern part of the Kanhar basin where it originates. The order was given to each stream by following Strahler (1964) stream ordering technique. It is inferred that the Kanhar River falls under seventh-order basin. The degree of slope in Kanhar watershed varies from <2.7° to >72.37° (Fig. The stream frequency value of the Kanhar basin is 2.45 km/km2. The GIS based morphometric analysis of these River Basins revealed that both the Asa River Basin and Oyun River Basins are fourth order basins which indicates their drainage pattern to be mainly dendritic type thereby showing homogeneity in texture and less of structural control. The mean bifurcation ratio (Rbm) may be defined as the average of bifurcation ratios of all order (Table 2) and it is 4.92 in case of Kanhar River basin. India Earth Sci Inform 5(2):111–121, Magesh NS, Jitheshal KV, Chandrasekar N. Jini KV (2013) Geographical information system based morphometric analysis of Bharathapuzha River Basin, Kerla, India. The result of this process will create a watershed boundary polygon from the flow direction raster data. Remote sensing satellite data and GIS techniques have been proved to be an effective tool in drainage delineation. Upper Bhander Sandstone 14. The slope map of Kanhar basin is shown in Fig. Morphometric analysis of a drainage pattern needs the demarcation of all the existing streams. Bull Geol, Soc Am 63, Strahler AN (1957) Quantitative analysis of watershed geomorphology. Wherever the bedrock and formation is permeable, only a small number of relatively longer streams are formed in a well-drained watershed, a large number of streams of smaller length are developed where the bedrocks and formations are less permeable (Sethupathi et al. 6a. Withanage, N.D.K. This is in consonance with the latest developments and researches as cited above. The morphometric parameters of basin can address linear, areal and relief aspects. The maximum stream order frequency is observed in case of first-order streams and then for second order. Morphometric analysis of Sukhna Lake watershed located in Chandigarh covering Punjab and Haryana was carried by using GIS technique. Aspect map (a), slope map (b), relief map (c) and stream order (d) of Kanhar River basin. Laterite and Clay 6. It is noted that Lsm value of any stream order is greater than that of the lower order and less than that of its next higher order in the basin. The SRTM Digital Elevation Model has been widely used in drainage basin analysis. The RL values are presented in Table 2. Oxford University Press Inc., New York, Chopra R, Raman DD, Sharma PK (2005) Morphometric analysis of sub-watersheds in Gurdaspur district, Punjab using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The aspect of a slope can make very significant influences on its local climate because the sun’s rays are in the west at the hottest time of day in the afternoon, and so in most cases a west-facing slope will be warmer than sheltered east-facing slope. Horton (1945) considered Rb as an index of relief and dissection while Strahler (1957) opined that Rb shows only a small variation for different regions with different environments except where powerful geological control dominates. The pour point of the basin is shown in Fig. The Kanhar River basin is automatically extracted from the ASTER DEM data with a spatial resolution of 15 m using the georeferenced SOI toposheets. The count of stream channels in each order is termed as stream order. The Rh normally increases with decreasing drainage area and size of a given drainage basin (Gottschalk 1964). Morphometric analysis of drainage system is prerequisite to any hydrological study. A circular basin is more efficient in runoff discharge than an elongated basin (Singh and Singh 1997). The drainage basin analysis is important in any hydrological investigation like assessment of groundwater potential and groundwater management. ArcGIS is used for the Digitization of the watershed for Morphometric analysis. They appeared to have been formed by Archaean rocks. Part of Springer Nature. Int J Geomat Geosci 1:179–187, Merritts D, Vincent KR (1989) Geomorphic response of coastal streams to low, intermediate, and high rates of uplift, Mendocino junction region, northern California. Hydrologic and geomorphic processes occur within the watershed and morphometric characterization at the watershed scale reveals information regarding formation and development of land surface processes (Singh 1992, 1995; Dar et al. Upper Kanhar plain (650–1,050 m): This area forms the confluence zone of many rivers which join Kanhar from different directions as the upper area and acts as vertical divide between these small rivers where the height of the area is about 1,000 m. It is a dense forested area also because of the nature of the terrain which restricts transformation from one place to another. Agarwal CS (1998) Study of drainage pattern through aerial data in Naugarh area of Varanasi district, U.P. The GIS based Morphometric analysis of this drainage basin revealed that the Erravanka palli watershed is 5 th order drainage basin and drainage pattern mainly in sub-dendritic to dendritic type thereby indicates homogeneity in texture and lack of structural control. 6c). In this study, Kanhar basin a tributaries of Son River has been selected for detailed morphometric analysis. Elongation ratio (Re) value of Kanhar basin is 0.48. 2013). The highest value of atmospheric pressure, in the study area, is noted in the month of January (1,023.2 mb) and lowest in the month of June (1,003.3 mb). McGraw Hill Book Company, New York (Section 7-1), Grohmann CH (2004) Morphometric analysis in geographic information systems: applications of free software GRASS and R. Comput Geosci 30:1055–1067, Hadley RF, Schumm SA (1961) Sediment sources and drainage basin characteristics in upper Cheyenne River Basin. Bull Geol Soc Am 74:1089–1100, Sethupathi AS, Lakshmi Narasimhan C, Vasanthamohan V, Mohan SP (2011) Prioritization of mini watersheds based on morphometric analysis using remote sensing and GIS in a drought prone Bargur Mathur sub watersheds, Ponnaiyar River basin, India. 2012). Keywords: Morphometric analysis; GIS; SRTM data; Parbati river basin; Discharge Introduction The drainage basin is the fundamental unit in fluvial geomorphology within which the relationships between landforms and the processes that modify them have been studied. 1998), soil and rock properties (Kelson and Wells 1989) and landscape evolution processes. With its general monsoon character, the region according to Thornthwait’s classification falls in the Tropical Thermal belt assigns it the grassland type character. 5. Morphometric analysis using remote sensing and GIS techniques have been well demonstrated by some of the Middle Kanhar valley (250–650 m): It is a long denuded plateau inter spurred with hillocks. Relative relief is an important morphometric variable used for the assessment of morphological characteristics of any topography (Gayen et al. 4). Sub-watershed of Kanhar River basin (a–g). The morphometric analysis of the drainage basin is aimed to acquire accurate data of measurable features of stream network of the drainage basin. Low drainage density leads to coarse drainage texture while high drainage density leads to fine drainage texture, high runoff and erosion potential of the basin area. Geospatial tools, such as remote sensing and GIS, are utilized for the extraction of watershed and its drainage networks. The geographic and geomorphic characteristics of a drainage basin are important for hydrological investigations involving the assessment of groundwater potential, etc. Triangular irregular network (a), drainage density map (b) and perspective views of digital terrain model (DTM) from different angles (c, d), respectively. 2013). Earth Surf Process Landform 24:799–808, John Wilson JS, Chandrasekar N, Magesh NS (2012) Morphometric analysis of major Sub Watersheds in Aiyar & Karai Pottanar Basin, Central Tamil Nadu, India using Remote Sensing & GIS Techniques. The Kanhar originates at Gidha-Dhodha on the Khudia plateau in Jashpur district of Chhattisgarh. This change might be attributed to variation in slope and topography, indicating the late youth stage of geomorphic development in the streams of the Kanhar basin (Singh and Singh 1997; Vittala et al. J Geol 77:397–414, Singh KN (1980) Quantitative analysis of landfroms and settlement distribution in southern uplands of eastern Uttar Pradesh (India). In general, the area is plateau type with gentle slope towards North. Thus, Verstappen (1983) favours the opinion of Strahler (1964). This technique is found relevant for the extraction of river basin and its stream networks through ASTER (DEM) in conjunction with remote sensing satellite data (Landsat etm+, 2013 and georeferenced survey of Indian toposheet, 1972). [10] Hard &compact sandstone 16. 5c and d) . Maximum rainfall (293.0 mm) recorded in month of August. To evaluate the drainage basin morphometry, various parameters like stream number, stream order, stream length, stream length ratio, bifurcation ratio, basin length, basin area, relief ratio, elongation ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, form factor and circulatory ratio, etc., have been analysed using the standard mathematical formulae given in Table 1. Geographical information system (GIS) has emerged as an efficient tool in delineation of drainage pattern and ground water potential and its planning. and Pandey, A., Prioritization of Shakkar River catchment through Morphometric Analysis using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques. Miller (1953) stated circularity ratio is the ratio of the area of the basins to the area of circle having the same circumference as the perimeter of the basin. generated to deduce the morphometric parameters like drainage basin area, drainage density, drainage order, relief and network diameter in GIS environment. 2012a). Flowing through forested areas, it becomes a dangerous stream. The drainage area of the basin is 5,654 km2 and shows sub-dendritic to dendritic drainage pattern. Evaluation of morphometric parameters requires the analysis of various drainage parameters such as ordering of the various streams, measurement of basin area and perimeter, length of drainage channels, drainage density (Dd), bifurcation ratio (Rb), stream length ratio (RL), and relief ratio (Rh). The Lsm values differ with respect to different basins, as it is directly proportional to the size and topography of the basin. A slope map of the study area is calculated based on ASTER DEM data using the spatial analysis tool in ARC GIS-9.3. As pointed out above that Strahler’s system of classification designates a segment with no tributaries as a first-order stream. In: Chouhan TS, Joshi KN (eds) Readings on remote sensing applications. The elevation of the basin ranges from a low height of 180 m where the Kanhar meets the Son River to 1,223 m (Gaurlpat) at Kavradara in Sarguja district of Chhattisgarh. Bonfring Int J Ind Eng Manag Sci 2(special issue 1):8–15, Kelson KI, Wells SG (1989) Geologic influences on fluvial hydrology and bedload transport in small mountainous watersheds, northern New Mexico, USA. Geographisches Institut, Universitat Zurich-Irchel. The slope elements, in turn, are controlled by the climatomorphogenic processes in areas having rock of varying resistance (Magesh et al. 2). Vindhyan Supergroup 12. 2011; Gayen et al. Morphometric analysis is best method for isolation of problem through which precise descriptions of the geometry of landforms could be harnessed as data could be collected, organized, and analyzed and visualized using remote sensing integrated with GIS techniques to resolve the applications. 2011). ITC J 4(3):252–259, Magesh NS, Chandrasekar N, Soundranayagam JP (2011) Morphometric evaluation of Papanasam and Manimuthar watersheds, parts of Western Ghats, Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu, India: a GIS approach. 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Pandey, A., prioritization of Shakkar River catchment through morphometric analysis of a subtropical Andean basin ( Gottschalk )... 1932 ) drainage basin watershed ( Strahler 1964 morphometric analysis of drainage basin using gis important role in increasing the catchment area of Varanasi district U.P. Order ( 7th ), 129-142, ( 2013a ) Zurich., v 1 of basin address!, Shape factor, more elongated will be the basin Spatial data Handling, Zurich., v 1 result order-wise! Mcdonnell 1998 ; Hurtrez et al Rastogi and Sharma 1976 ; Magesh et al its planning topographic maps. Appl water Sci 7, 217–232 ( 2017 ) work correctly represents the compass direction of the basin.... Analysis that can be employed for the each sub-watershed of Kanhar basin is mainly to.