history of america pdf

Washington's strategy forced the first army out of Boston in 1776, and was responsible for the surrender of the second and third armies at Saratoga (1777) and Yorktown (1781). "[87] The first settlers in the west were the Spanish in New Mexico; they became U.S. citizens in 1848. America's Founding Documents Explore the story behind the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution & the Bill of Rights. Virgin forests provided an ample supply of building material and firewood. An independent bank for an independent nation. In late August 1619, the White Lion, an English privateer commanded by John Jope, sailed … In upstate New York a major British invasion of New York State was turned back at the Battle of Plattsburgh. While Quakers populated the city, German immigrants began to flood into the Pennsylvanian hills and forests, while the Scots-Irish pushed into the far western frontier. [147], Around 1912 the feminist movement began to reawaken, putting an emphasis on its demands for equality and arguing that the corruption of American politics demanded purification by women because men could not do that job. [234] At the same time, Obama increased American involvement in Afghanistan, starting a surge strategy using an additional 30,000 troops, while proposing to begin withdrawing troops sometime in December 2014. The liberalism of the early 1960s contained no hint of radicalism, little disposition to revive new deal era crusades against concentrated economic power, and no intention to redistribute wealth or restructure existing institutions. [127] Most were unskilled workers who quickly found jobs in mines, mills, and factories. The Compromise of 1877 gave Republican candidate Rutherford B. Hayes the White House in exchange for removing all remaining federal troops in the South. With Washington as the first president and Alexander Hamilton his chief adviser, a strong central government was created. [21] Spanish expeditions quickly reached the Appalachian Mountains, the Mississippi River, the Grand Canyon,[22] and the Great Plains. [273] After the election, Trump repeatedly has made false claims of massive voter fraud and that the election was rigged and his campaign and his allies, including the state of Texas, have filed dozens of rejected lawsuits. It insisted that slavery would never be allowed to expand (and thus would slowly die out).[99]. Social scientists Theodore Caplow et al. Pro- and anti- contingents rushed to Kansas to vote slavery up or down, resulting in a miniature civil war called Bleeding Kansas. Jackson and his supporters also opposed reform as a movement. Nationalists worried that the new nation was too fragile to withstand an international war, or even internal revolts such as the Shays' Rebellion of 1786 in Massachusetts. [177], The Allies pushed the Germans out of France but faced an unexpected counterattack at the Battle of the Bulge in December. viii, 519 pages : 24 cm "The definitive history of Asian Americans by one of the nation's preeminent scholars on the subject. [179] Bloodied at Okinawa, the U.S. prepared to invade Japan's home islands when B-29s dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, forcing the empire's surrender in a matter of days and thus ending World War II. Contains interesting Presidential facts, with a fast moving style. [88], Manifest destiny was the belief that American settlers were destined to expand across the continent. An artistic recreation of The Kincaid Site from the prehistoric Mississippian culture as it may have looked at its peak 1050–1400 CE. Eventually, the knowledge began to spread northward. On October 7, 2001, the United States and NATO then invaded Afghanistan to oust the Taliban regime, which had provided safe haven to al-Qaeda and its leader Osama bin Laden. You will also know about the style of writing of the poets and authors that prevailed back then. The movement was split into factions by political ideology early on, with NOW on the left, the Women's Equity Action League (WEAL) on the right, the National Women's Political Caucus (NWPC) in the center, and more radical groups formed by younger women on the far-left. [223], The federal government established new domestic efforts to prevent future attacks. Patriot leaders from every colony convened the First Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance to the Intolerable Acts. Early settlers fight for survival in Season 1, Episode 1, "Rebels. Economic growth in terms of overall GDP was even greater. President Ulysses Grant's vigorous enforcement of the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1870 shut down the Klan, and it disbanded. Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt ended the Republican dominance of the White House and implemented his New Deal programs, which included relief for the unemployed, support for farmers, Social Security and a minimum wage. 2001. This was a defining moment in the foreign policy of the United States. America is a nation making itself up as it goes along -- a story of discovery and invention unfolding in speeches and images, letters and poetry, unprecedented feats of scholarship and imagination. San Francisco by 1880 had become the economic hub of the entire Pacific Coast with a diverse population of a quarter million. The Fall of Saigon ended the Vietnam War and resulted in North and South Vietnam being reunited. Enormous popular attention in the media focuses on the "Wild West" of the second half of the 19th century. In terms of political values, the Americans were largely united on a concept called Republicanism, which rejected aristocracy and emphasized civic duty and a fear of corruption. A History of Latin America (2008) Kennedy, David M., Lizabeth Cohen, and Thomas Bailey. [274][275][276][277], On January 6, 2021, The US Capitol Building was breached during the Save America March, a pro Trump march protesting election fraud. (He also brought the first black slaves to North America). See this inspiring history here! [155] American money, food, and munitions arrived quickly, but troops had to be drafted and trained; by summer 1918 American soldiers under General John J. Pershing's American Expeditionary Forces arrived at the rate of 10,000 a day, while Germany was unable to replace its losses. [17] In 1925, President Calvin Coolidge declared that a Norse explorer called Leif Erikson (c.970 – c.1020) was the first European to discover America. Communist victories in neighboring Cambodia and Laos occurred in the same year. [40], The American Revolutionary War began at Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts in April 1775 when the British tried to seize ammunition supplies and arrest the Patriot leaders. The last colony in this region was Pennsylvania, established in 1681 by William Penn as a home for religious dissenters, including Quakers, Methodists, and the Amish. Watson Brake is an 11-mound complex in Louisiana that dates to 3,500 BCE, and nearby Poverty Point, built by the Poverty Point culture, is an earthwork complex that dates to 1,700 BCE. [94] Justifications of slavery included economics, history, religion, legality, social good, and even humanitarianism, to further their arguments. [95], Religious activists split on slavery, with the Methodists and Baptists dividing into northern and southern denominations. INTRODUCTION T he history of the United States has been an experiment in democracy for more than 200 years. The debate over the issue of rights for the LGBT community, most notably that of same-sex marriage, began to shift in favor of same-sex couples, and has been reflected in dozens of polls released in the early part of the decade. [101] West Virginia is usually associated with the border states. One of the earliest cultures in the present-day United States was the Clovis culture, who are primarily identified by the use of fluted spear points called the Clovis point. Most of the relief programs were dropped after 1938 in the 1940s when the conservatives regained power in Congress through the Conservative Coalition. The mobilization of civilian factories, mines, shipyards, banks, transportation and food supplies all foreshadowed the impact of industrialization in World War I. Troy, Gil, and Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., eds. Lee won again at the Battle of Chancellorsville in May 1863, while losing his top aide, Stonewall Jackson. By the mid-18th century Pennsylvania was basically a middle-class colony with limited respect for its small upper-class. The settlers founded Fort Christina at the site of modern-day Wilmington, Delaware, and made treaties with the indigenous groups for land ownership on both sides of the Delaware River. In 1791, a Bill of Rights was added to guarantee inalienable rights. American history is shaped by the decisions of its Presidents, this brilliant film describes the US Presidents in chronological order from President George Washington, the first president in war and peace, through President Abraham Lincoln, preserver of the Union, and on up to the 50s. On September 9 of that year, Congress officially changed the nation's name to the United States of America. He gave strong support to the NATO alliance and built other alliances along similar lines, but they never were especially effective. [84][85], The American colonies and the new nation grew rapidly in population and area, as pioneers pushed the frontier of settlement west. In the 1660s, the Middle Colonies of New York, New Jersey, and Delaware were established in the former Dutch New Netherland, and were characterized by a large degree of ethnic and religious diversity. Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963, leaving the nation in profound shock.[190]. Much of the heartland of the Confederacy was physically destroyed, and could no longer provide desperately needed food, horses, mules, wagons, boots or munitions to its combat armies. ... Jacksonians feared the concentration of economic and political power. [225][226][227], In 2003, from March 19 to May 1, the United States launched an invasion of Iraq, which led to the collapse of the Iraq government and the eventual capture of Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein, with whom the U.S. had long-standing tense relations. The Georgia Colony – the last of the Thirteen Colonies – was established by James Oglethorpe in 1732 as a border to Spanish Florida and a reform colony for former prisoners and the poor.[29]. The company's first expedition was led by Peter Minuit, who had been governor of New Netherland from 1626 to 1631 but left after a dispute with the Dutch government, and landed in Delaware Bay in March 1638. Gradually the U.S. purchased the Native American tribal lands and extinguished their claims, forcing most tribes onto subsidized reservations. [105] On the homefront, industrial expansion in the North expanded dramatically, using its extensive railroad service, and moving industrial workers into munitions factories. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, and newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president. Divided into three sections -- colonial America, industrialization, the 20th century -- A Social History of American Technology is ideal for courses in American social and economic history, as a correlated text for the American history survey, as well as for courses that focus on the history of American technology. 0:27 [READ] EBOOK Hillary s America: The Secret History of the Democratic Party … The planters established themselves in the Tidewater region of Virginia, establishing massive plantations with slave labor, while the small-scale farmers made their way into political office. endstream endobj 555 0 obj<>/Size 521/Type/XRef>>stream p. cm. [243], In September 2008, the United States and most of Europe entered the longest post–World War II recession, often called the "Great Recession". By the end of the 19th century a few western states had granted women full voting rights,[146] though women had made significant legal victories, gaining rights in areas such as property and child custody. HISTORY IN BRIEF USA. It remains the deadliest war in American history, resulting in the deaths of about 750,000 soldiers and an undetermined number of civilian casualties. A cabinet-level agency called the Department of Homeland Security was created to lead and coordinate federal counter-terrorism activities. of our U.S.A. History in Brief. It was Boston, after all, a hotbed of activity, including the Boston Massacre and the Boston Tea Party. William Jennings Bryan led his Democratic Party in opposition to control of the Philippines, which he denounced as imperialism unbecoming to American democracy. [3] The peace treaty of 1783 gave the land east of the Mississippi River (including portions of Canada but not Florida) to the new nation. The movement reorganized after the Civil War, gaining experienced campaigners, many of whom had worked for prohibition in the Women's Christian Temperance Union. [4] After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, the United States entered World War II and financed the Allied war effort and helped defeat Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy in the European theater. The angst about the weaknesses of American education led to large-scale federal support for science education and research. [25], The colony served as a barrier to British expansion from New England, and as a result a series of wars were fought. Plymouth was followed by the Puritans and Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630. Economic growth and unemployment rates recovered by the mid 2010s, although these economic gains are currently imperilled in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. 0000002218 00000 n [32] Few could afford the cost of the journey to America, and so this form of unfree labor provided a means to immigrate. Each of the 13 American colonies had a slightly different governmental structure. [100] In addition, southern states benefited by their increased apportionment in Congress due to the partial counting of slaves in their populations. The Articles of Confederation established a central government, but it was ineffectual at providing stability as it could not collect taxes and had no executive officer. [31], Colonial America was defined by a severe labor shortage that used forms of unfree labor, such as slavery and indentured servitude. The war was frustrating for both sides. These mounds likely served a religious purpose. [186], The Plan's $13 billion budget was in the context of a U.S. GDP of $258 billion in 1948 and was in addition to the $12 billion in American aid given to Europe between the end of the war and the start of the Marshall Plan. But Lee pushed too hard and ignored the Union threat in the west. The history of the United States started with the arrival of Native Americans in North America around 15,000 BC.Numerous indigenous cultures formed, and many disappeared in the 1500s. Rivers were harnessed to power grain mills and sawmills, and the numerous harbors facilitated trade. [47], Nationalists – most of them war veterans – organized in every state and convinced Congress to call the Philadelphia Convention in 1787. The … The American Pageant (2 vol 2008), U.S. history; Marsh, James C., ed. The earliest recorded European mention of America is in a historical treatise by the medieval chronicler Adam of Bremen, circa 1075, where it is referred to as Vinland. 0:28 . Across the world, grateful nations gave women the right to vote. Growth was slow at first due to mismanagement by the Dutch and Native American conflicts. [233] After his election, Obama reluctantly continued the war effort in Iraq until August 31, 2010, when he declared that combat operations had ended. [175], Research and development took flight as well, best seen in the Manhattan Project, a secret effort to harness nuclear fission to produce highly destructive atomic bombs. LSD first emerged on the American scene during the 1950s, when the U.S. military and CIA researched the use of LSD as a “truth drug” that could be used to make prisoners talk. In 2007, the United States entered its worst economic crisis since the Great Depression, which was followed by slower-than-usual rates of economic growth during the early 2010s. Four new constitutional amendments – the Sixteenth through Nineteenth – resulted from progressive activism, bringing the federal income tax, direct election of Senators, prohibition, and woman suffrage. For the history of the continents, see, Occurrences and people in the US throughout history. In more than 200 original essays, this history brings together the nation's many voices. Slave rebellions, by Gabriel Prosser (1800), Denmark Vesey (1822), Nat Turner (1831), and most famously by John Brown (1859), caused fear in the white South, which imposed stricter oversight of slaves and reduced the rights of free blacks. Sidney M. Milkis and Jerome M. Mileur, eds. The movement began around 1790, gained momentum by 1800, and, after 1820 membership rose rapidly among Baptist and Methodist congregations, whose preachers led the movement. [192][193] As recent historians have explained: Gradually, liberal intellectuals crafted a new vision for achieving economic and social justice. Washington called out the state militia and personally led an army against the settlers, as the insurgents melted away and the power of the national government was firmly established. The Iroquois were powerful, waging war with many neighboring tribes, and later, Europeans. His time in office was marked by such notable events as the acceleration of the United States' role in the Space Race, escalation of the American role in the Vietnam War, the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the jailing of Martin Luther King Jr. during the Birmingham campaign. of our U.S.A. History in Brief. The proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution, passed by Congress in 1972 was defeated by a conservative coalition mobilized by Phyllis Schlafly. Also covered are the change of … The economy basically recovered by 1936, but had a sharp, short recession in 1937–38; long-term unemployment, however, remained a problem until it was solved by wartime spending.[164]. For the Founding Fathers, according to one team of historians, "republicanism represented more than a particular form of government. There is agreement that the Soviets realized they were well behind the Americans in military technology, that to try to catch up would be very expensive, and that the military expenses were already a very heavy burden slowing down their economy. Native Americans turned to the federal courts to fight for their land rights. Reforms of the Age included the Civil Service Act, which mandated a competitive examination for applicants for government jobs. Roosevelt positioned the U.S. as the "Arsenal of Democracy", pledging full-scale financial and munitions support for the Allies – but no military personnel. 2. By 1903, 66 of these islands were recognized as territories of the United States. As the war ended, the final British army sailed out of New York City in November 1783, taking the Loyalist leadership with them. In August 1949 the Soviets tested their first nuclear weapon, thereby escalating the risk of warfare. That meant George W. Bush, then in the lead, carried Florida and the election. He had no sympathy for American Indians, initiating the removal of the Cherokees along the Trail of Tears. By June 1865, the Union Army controlled all of the Confederacy and liberated all of the designated slaves. The financial crisis threatened the stability of the entire economy in September 2008 when Lehman Brothers failed and other giant banks were in grave danger. Congress enfranchised black men and temporarily stripped many ex-Confederate leaders of the right to hold office. In 1776, in Philadelphia, the Second Continental Congress declared the independence of the colonies as the United States. Resistance to these taxes, especially the Boston Tea Party in 1773, led to Parliament issuing punitive laws designed to end self-government in Massachusetts. They also argued that if all the slaves were freed, there would be widespread unemployment and chaos. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaign into Maryland was designed to hurt Union morale and win European support. The 1824 "corrupt bargain" had strengthened their suspicion of Washington politics. In 1670, the Province of Carolina was established, and Charleston became the region's great trading port. Outside of Virginia, the first British colony south of New England was Maryland, established as a Catholic haven in 1632. Southern whites insisted that slavery was of economic, social, and cultural benefit to all whites (and even to the slaves themselves), and denounced all anti-slavery spokesmen as "abolitionists". [118], The "Gilded Age" was a term that Mark Twain used to describe the period of the late 19th century with a dramatic expansion of American wealth and prosperity, underscored by the mass corruption in the government. [143] The Progressive Movement lasted through the 1920s; the most active period was 1900–18. The History of Transportation in the United States ("This is America," 2010-01-10) Voices From 9-11 Tell Story of Fast-Moving Events (4:00) ("Words and Their Stories," 2011-09-10) Holiday Special Christmas in America During the However, the Federalists became divided after Adams sent a successful peace mission to France that ended the Quasi-War of 1798.[50][54]. 0000001377 00000 n [139] By 1908, however, Americans lost interest in an empire and turned their international attention to the Caribbean, especially the building of the Panama Canal. Known for its lively, clear prose as well as its scholarly research, it is the only volume to tell America's story from … The U.S. dominated the war against Japan and stopped Japanese expansion in the Pacific in 1942. [219], The Republican Party expanded its base throughout the South after 1968 (excepting 1976), largely due to its strength among socially conservative white Evangelical Protestants and traditionalist Roman Catholics, added to its traditional strength in the business community and suburbs. 1 History of Gangs in the United States Introduction A widely respected chronicler of British crime, Luke Pike (1873), reported the first active gangs in Western civilization. This led the psychiatric community to become interested in LSD for its possible therapeutic capabilities for depressed, psychotic and epileptic patients. While they were not able to land the plane safely, they were able to re-take control of the aircraft and crash it into an empty field in Pennsylvania, killing all 44 people including the four terrorists on board, thereby saving whatever target the terrorists were aiming for. The indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest were likely the most affluent Native Americans. A few of the (northernmost) "slave states" did not secede and became known as the border states; these were Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri. In June 2015, the Supreme Court legalized gay marriage nationally in the case of Obergefell v. Hodges. Plantation owners, realizing that emancipation would destroy their economic system, sometimes moved their slaves as far as possible out of reach of the Union army. [176] From 1942 to 1946, the project was under the direction of Major General Leslie Groves of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The city's revolutionary spirit demanded growth … Following World War II, the United States emerged as one of the two dominant superpowers, the USSR being the other. Many Democrats wanted to annex all of Mexico, but that idea was rejected by southerners who argued that by incorporating millions of Mexican people, mainly of mixed race, would undermine the United States as an exclusively white republic. 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